Nikah k masail in urdu pdf. Share this: Tweet. Click one of our member below to chat on Whatsapp. The team typically replies in a few minutes. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The opposite of a variable is a constant.
Its value always does not change e. If the research problem involves more variable s or a large population then it would be difficult to complete it within one semester. It may also require additional resources to accomplish it. Abstract: See appendix F iii. Introduction of the Study: Background of the study helps reader to understand the research problem and recent debates about it.
It also tells about the importance of studying a particular research problem. Its length may vary from two to three pages. For writing background of the study, you need to consult related research articles, theses, books etc. The first paragraph of the background of the study must be stated in your own words. It should reflect your understanding of the research problem. In next paragraphs, you need to include properly cited research work of other researchers. The reference of all the related research work included in your background of the study must be provided in your bibliography.
We will see APA style in more detail in a separate section of this manual. Statement of the Problem: The statement of the problem is based on your research title.
It consists of a single statement that gives direction to your research project. So, it must be clear, simple and understandable. Research Objectives: Research objectives are based on statement of the problem. There may be more than one research objectives for a research project. Its number depends on the breadth and depth of statement of the problem.
However, there must be at least one research objective for a research problem. For writing research objectives, you need to use 6measurable verbs e. Some examples of research objectives related to above mentioned statement of the problem are given below: 1. To assess the effect of professional training on written communication skills of elementary school teachers.
To examine the areas of communication skills of elementary school teachers influenced by professional training. Research Questions: The research questions are based on research objectives. The research questions deal with more detailed aspects of statement of the problem.
There may be one or more research questions for one research objectives depending upon the breadth and depth of research objective. For second research objective mentioned above, the following research questions can be formulated: 1. Is there any change in specific components of communication skills of elementary school teachers as a result of professional training?
It depends on your research topic and research design that whether it requires hypothesis testing or not. There are two main types of hypothesis: alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis.
Null hypothesis asserts that no statistically significant variation exists between two variables in a given condition. Examples of null hypotheses for above mentioned research objectives are given below: H0 There is no statistically significant difference in written communication skills of elementary school teachers those who took professional training and those who did not.
Examples of alternative for above mentioned research objectives are given below: H1There exists a statistically significant difference in written communication skills of male and female elementary school teachers after attending professional training.
A hypothesis is accepted or not accepted on the basis of statistical results obtained after data analysis. In most of the research studies, null hypothesis is generally formulated as it reduces the chance of bias on the part of researcher.
If null hypothesis is accepted then it means that there is no difference in variation of two factors. It may also assert that any variation between two variables is due to chance. It informs the reader about the potential beneficiaries of the research project. It also tells about how the proposed research study is beneficial for a particular group s of people. They will be able to know about the effect of professional training programmes for improving various areas of communication skills of teachers.
They may work on improving professional training programmes keeping in view least effective areas of communication skill. The research study will also be beneficial for teachers as they will know about their strong areas and work on their improvement areas regarding communication skills.
Limitation and Delimitation of the Study: The limitation of the study refers to those aspect s that a researcher was unable to control. Limitation of the study might affect the generalizability or utility of research results. Delimitation of the Study refers to intentional choices made by a researcher to restrict a research project to particular geographical area or selected variables.
For example, delimiting a research to a particular population, gender or age group etc. Research Methodology: Research methodology involves following components: a. Type of Research Study: A description of the research study must be provided that whether it is descriptive, correlational, causal comparative, experimental research study or case study etc. Please Provide following information to Register.
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