arthurs veterinary reproduction and obstetrics pdf free download

arthurs veterinary reproduction and obstetrics pdf free download

Figures 1. This is particularly useful in detecting ples of whole ovaries, cross-sections and B-mode the possibility of twin ovulations and also in dete r- ultrasound images.

Ginther Just before the onset of oestrus, several folli- observed that in the preovulatory period there was cles e nlarge to a size of em. By the first day of a ch ange in th e shape of the follicle and a thicken- oestrus one follicle the dominant follicle is gen- ing of the follicular wall, which, together with the erally considerably larger than the remainder, hav- assessment of the size of the follicle, could b e used ing a diameter of 3.

During oestrus, this to predict the time of ovulation. The same author follicle matures and ovulates when it has attained a has used this technique to assess corpora lutea. After ovu- J-le identified diffe rences in the ech ogenic proper- latio n, the other follicles regress untiL during the ti es of th e CL depending upon the persistence of first 4 -9 days of the ensuing dioestrus, no follicles th e corpus haemorrhagicum; this he iden tified in larger than 1 ern are likely to be present.

The collapsed follicl e is recognized small and bean-shaped, common dimensions being by an inde ntation on the ova ri an surface; there is 6 em from pole to pole, 4 em from th e hilus to the usually some haemorrhage into th e follicle and the free border and 3 em fro m side to side. Not uncom- coagulum hardens within the n ext 24 hours.

Quite monly, h owever, in early spring or late autumn, th e frequently the mare shows evide nce of discomfort anoestrous ovaries are of medium or large size and when the ovary is palpated soon after ovulation. During the cycle, there are sonic examinations are performed, it is sometimes large variations in the ovarian size depending on the possible to confuse a mature follicle with the early number a nd size of the follicles.

During oestrus the corpus haemorrhagicum, since before ovulation ovary of the t horoughbred mare may contain two. A The ovary was hard on palpation w ith no evidence of follicular activity. Note the ovulation fossa o. B Cross-section of the ovary. In dioestrus, the cer- with o ther subsidiary fo llicles, combine to give it a vix is small, constricted and firm; it and the vagina are huge size. During CL and o nly atretic follicles, the ovary may be little oestrus, there is a gradual increase in the vascularity of larger than in anoestrus.

As oestrus advances and ovulatio n vix usi ng an ill uminated speculum, it is possible to time approaches, the cervix becomes very relaxed and.

A The ovary was soft on palpation w ith evidence of large follicles near the surface of the ovary f. Note that three follicles are at least 2 em in diameter. C 8-mode ultrasound image of the same ovary show ing one large anechoic black area about 3. With the development of the CL with dear, lubricant mucus. After ovulation there is a the uterus increases in tone and thickness, but these gradual reversion to the dioestrous appearance. At oestrus During anoestrus, as in pregnancy, both the vagina there is no increase of tone.

During anoestrus and for and cervix are blanched; the cervix is constricted and the first few days after ovulation the uterus is flaccid. A Section of the ovary showing a 4cm follicle f. B B-mode ultrasound image of a different ovary showing a em preovulatory follicle f as a large anechoic black area. B 8-mode ultrasound image of a 5 em anovulatory follicle that is undergoing luteinization. A The corpus luteum cl , although present, could not be palpated externally, whereas a follicle f could be identified.

B Section of the same ovary. Note that the corpus luteum cl , still with a central blood clot, impinges on the ovulation fossa o where ovulation occurred. Also, one large follicle f and several smaller ones can be identified.

C 8-mode ultrasound image of a different ovary showing the corpus luteum cl and follicles f. A temporary pneumovagina assists in 1. When introduced to a stallion o r teaser, this examination Allen The vu lva is slightly oedematou s, and th ere is a vari- Signs of oestrus ab le amount of mucoid disch arge.

A mare that is The mare becomes restl ess and irritable; she fre- not in oestrus will usually vio lently oppose the quently adopts the micturition posture and voids advan ces of a stallion a nd for this reaso n 'trying'. A The corpus luteum cl , although present.

Note the corpus luteum cl , w hich impinges upon the ovulation fossa o where ovulation has occurred. C B-mode ultrasound image of the same ovary showing a speckled area corresponding to the corpus luteum cl. If the mare is in oestrus the between the end of the last oestrus and th e stan of stall ion usually exhibits 'flehmen'. Good stud the next, she is teased 16 days after the end of management req uires that a mare is accustomed the las t oestrus.

J" I circulation of the mare during the oestrous cycle. Endocrine changes during the oestrous cycle IThe cow The trends in endocrine changes are shown in Figure Cyclic periodicity 1.

The secretion of FSH is biphasic with surges a t approximately day intervals. One surge Under conditions of domestication, normal and occurs just after ovulation, with a second surge in well-cared-for cattle are polyoestrous throughout the mid- to late dioestrus approximately 10 days before year.

The age at first oestrus, or puberty, is affected by th e next ovulation. It has been suggested that this nutrition and season of birth and ranges from increase in FSH secretion, which is unique to the months, with an average of 10 months. Irvine Poor feeding and calfhood disease delay species since there is no sudden surge of this hor- puberty.

Once puberty has been reached, cyclical mone but a gradual increase and persistence of ele- activity should persist, except during pregnancy, vated levels for days on either side of ovulation.

Some cows and heifers also fail to physical changes of the CL. This may, however, be due to failure of in the intensity of heat signs; the manifestations tend the herdsperson to observe the signs rather than a to be more marked in heifers than in cows. However, failure of the cow to show signs. This has been compared with the luteal phase of the cycle. There tends to be There are a number of factors that can influence grouping of sexually active individuals; there is the duration: breed of animal, season of year, pres- a reduction in the time spent eating, resting and ence of a bull, nutrition, milk yield, lactation number ruminating, and frequently a reduction in milk and, perhaps most important, the number of cows yield.

There is usually a compensatory rebound at the next is also good evidence that more signs of oestrus are milking Horrell eta! As the cow 12 hours after the end of oestms. During this period, during oestrus Signs of oestrus and just afterwards, the cow will attempt to mount Where artificial insemination is used, the accurate other cows; quite often before she does this she detection of oestrus by the herdsperson is paramount will assess the receptivity of the other cows by rest- in ensuring optimum fertility.

Poor detection is prob- ing her chin on the rump or loins. If the cow to b e ably the most important reason affecting delayed mounted is responsive and stands, she will mount breeding Wood If the cow that to be losing twice as many days due to fai Iure to detect is mounted is not in oestrus she wi ll walk away heat as due to conception failures.

Table 1. During dioestrus, these cells it to hang in complete, clear strands from the vulva vary from flat to low columnar.

Leukocytic invasion to the ground; it also adheres to the tail and flanks. Copious secretion of m ucus by the cervix and there is a small elevation of temperature. The a nd anterior vagina begins a day or so before heat, tail may be slightly raised.

The hair of the tail-head increases during heat and gradually diminishes to is often ruffled and the skin sometimes becomes the fourth day after heat. The mucus is transparent excoriated through mounting by other cows. For the a nd flows readily. At range, the oestrous cow may wander mucus are variations in its crystallization pauerns from the herd and, if isolated, there will be bel- that can be seen wh en dried smears of mucus are lowing.

When she is put with a bull, the two ani- examined microscopically. During oestrus, and for mals lick each other and the cow often mounts the a few days aftenvards, the crystals are disposed in a bull before standing to be mounted by him.

For a distinct aborization pauern, while for the remain- short time after service, the cow stands with ra ised der of the cycle this pattern is absent. This phenom- tail and arched back, and where actua l service has e non, together with the character and amount of not been seen this posture indicates that mating has cervical mucus, is dependent on the concentration occurred. The postoestrous vaginal mucus shows Within 2 days of service, there is an occasional floccules composed of leukocytes and, as previously yellowish-white vulval discharge of mucus co ntain- mentioned, blood is frequently present.

At about Hyperaemia of the mucosae of the vagina 48 hours after h eat, irrespective of service, heifers and cenrix is progressive during pro-oestrus and a nd many cows show a bright red sanguineous dis- oestrus; the vagina l protrusion of the cervix is charge, the blood coming mainly from the uterine tumefied and relaxed, so that one or two fin- caruncles.

During The body temperature of dairy cows falls about metoestrus, there is a rapid reduction in vascu- 0. There are also cyclic the day of oestrus and increased for the next 6 days variations in vaginal therma l conductance and until a plateau was reached.

This was followed by a vagi nal pH, the former rising just b efo re oestrus gradual decline from 7 days before oestrus Lewis Abrams et al Practical detection of this is placed in the cervical end of the vagina the pH tedious; however, the use of microwave teleme- fell from 7. Automated fell again to 6. During oestrus, the uterus is congested and the endo- Vaginal pH also fluctuates throughout the oestrous metrium is suffused with oedematous fluid; its sur- cycle but is lowest, 7.

The most notable marked vascu larity, conveys a highly characteristic feature is the regu larity of the number of waves of tonic turgidity to the palpating fingers; the horns follicu lar growth per oestrous cycle, which prob- ft'el erect and coiled. This tunicity is present the day ably reflects genetic or environmental influences. Those individuals with two waves per cycle petechial haemorrhages, and these give rise to the tend to have a shorter interoestrous interval, ovu- postoestrous vaginal discharge of blood.

In heifers late larger fol licles a nd be less fertile tha n those there are often also associated perimetria! In teresting data obtained by petechiae. Usually one foll icle ovulates and one ovum is lib- Heifers Cows erated after each heat, but twin ovulations occur in lnterovulatory interval Days from luteolysis to 4. Multiple ovulation 1. Follicular growth and atresia throughout the cycle is a feature in the cow Matton et al Consequently, a normal follicle of mm Size of ovulatory follicle at In the second wave th e ovula- Maximum size of In a small number of cows M aximum serum proges- 7.

In Bos indicus cows fo ur waves. If the opportunity arose for repeatedly carry- respectively. This h as been noted before Kinsel ing out rectal examinations during heat and for the 24 et a l The follicular waves are initiated by a small 'n1e ovary frequemly feels flattened and soft.

If such an ri se in FSI-1; if this does not occur o r is delayed, ovary is examined post-mortem it will be seen that the then the fol licular wave a lso does n ot occur, or surface from which ovulation has occurred is wrinkled is delayed. There is evidence that th e follicle that and possibly bloodstained. TI1e CL develops by hyper- is destined to become the do min ant one may trophy and luteinization of the granulosa cells lining be slightly larger and have a better blood sup- the follicle.

Enlargement is rapid. By d1e 48th hour after p ly than th e res t, so that it responds to the rise in ovulation it has attained a diameter of about 1. At FS I-1 a n d produces m o re oestradiol and androgens; this stage the developing CL is soft, and yields on pal- the production of the former hormone is critical pation.

Its colour is dull cream, and the luteinized cells to it being selected for d ominance Fortune et a l can be seen in the form of loose pleats. TI1e CL attains There is a lso good evidence that the IGF its maximum size by d1e 7th to 8th day of dioestrus system plays a critical ro le in the selection of the Fig.

The luteinized pleats are now relatively dominant fol licle in the cow; th is was described compact and the body comprises a more or less ho mo- a bove. The ICFs stimulate granu losa cell growth geneous mass, yellow to orange-yellow in colour.

TI1e greatest dimension of et al Scm in d ia meter. Its weight also varies; in our series fully These follicles do not a lter the general oval contours of the ovaries but do cause some overall variation in gross ovarian size. The ease of pa lpating the m rec- tally will depend upon the size, degree of protrusion and relationship with the corpus luteum. During pro-oestrus and oestrus, the dom inant fo llicle destined to ovulate enlarges, and ovulation occurs when it has attained a size of 1.

On rectal palpation of th e ovaries dur- ing oestrus it is som etimes possible to detect the ripeni n g foll icle as a slightly bulging, smooth, soft area on th e surface of one of them, a lthough it is readily identified using transrectal ultrasonogra- p hy. Ovulation may occu r from any aspect of the ova rian surface and the shape of that organ sub- sequently w hen the C L d evelops wil l be influ- enced chi e fl y by this site. The point of ovula tion I I I I I I is usua lly an avascul ar area of the follicular wall o CM 2 3 4 and consequently haemorrhage is not a fea ture of A bovine ovulation, although th ere is ma rked post- ovulatory congestion around the rupture point and Fig.

A A mature corpus sometimes a small blood clot is presen t in the centre luteum cl with ovulation papilla could be readily palpated together with a mid-cycle follicle f. Similar variations also occur in the weights of the CI.. Sometimes, the centre of the yellow body is occupied by a cavity Fig. The size of the cavity varies; in the majo rity it is small, averaging 0.

It is occupied by yellow fluid. In the case just described, there is evidence of ovu- lation by the presence of a pinhead depression in the centre of the projection from the surf.

This serves to differentiate th e CL from the abnormality of the cow's ovary: luteinizatio n of the walls of the fol- licle without ovulation. Projection of the corpus luteum from t he surface of the ovary As the CL enlarges, it tends to push itself out of the ovary, stretching the surface o f the latter, until by the time it attains maximum development it often fo rms a distinct projectio n.

Th e degree and type of this pro- jection vary. In the majority it is a distinct bulge about 1 em in diameter with a clear-cut constriction where it joins the general contour of the ovary. In other cases it is nipple-like Fig. In a third type the Fig. C 8-mode ultrasound image of the same ovary showing a speckled area greater part of the ovary.

It would seem that the type corresponding to the corpus luteum cl and the mid-cycle of protrusion that develops depends on th e extent of follicle f. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours. Finding libraries that hold this item Specialists from eight different countries are contributing authors to this book making it a truly international overview of veterinary reproduction and obstetrics Numerous full-colour and black-and-white illustrations and many graphics contribute to a deeper understanding of normal veterinary reproduction and obstetrics as well as reproductive disorders and diseases in the common and less common domesticated species For all those already working in veterinary reproductive medicine or those planning to specialise in this field, and also for students, this book represents a valuable and complete overview of the discipline making it an indispensable work of reference in the library of every veterinarian.

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