Alignments Tutorials. Learn about alignments, which are the basis for modeling roads. Learn the basics about viewing and designing the elevation profile of land surfaces along an alignment. Learn the basics about creating and editing parcels as well as working with the display of parcels.
Learn how to design the finished grade for land surfaces such as housing subdivisions and retail sites. Corridor Assembly Tutorials. Learn how to build and manage assemblies, which are cross sections that are placed incrementally along an alignment.
Learn how to create simple and complex corridor designs. Intersection and Roundabout Tutorials. Learn how to create complex intersections that dynamically react to changes in the model. Sections Tutorials. Learn how to create cross sections of your corridor design, calculate cut and fill earthwork quantities, and create mass-haul diagrams.
Material Calculation Tutorials. Learn how to calculate material quantities and generate reports, including pay item reports, earthworks reports, and mass haul diagrams. Pipe Networks. Learn how to create a pipe network using the specialized layout tools. Part Builder Tutorials. Learn how to design and model parts that are used in pipe networks.
Labels and Tables Tutorials. Another characteristic of a Civil 3D object is that it is affected by a Civil 3D style. A Civil 3D style is a collection of settings that control the appearance and behavior of a Civil 3D object. Connecting Objects and styles 19 What is Elevation? Depending on where you are in your civil engineering or surveying learning experi- ence, the term elevation may be foreign to you.
One way to visualize this concept is to think of it in terms of a piece of grid paper laid out over an area of land with the horizontal lines running west to east and the vertical lines running south to north.
Elevation would be coming straight up out of the paper. So, the top of a hill would have a greater elevation than the bottom of a ravine. Another way of thinking about this is in terms of an XYZ coordinate system. X and Y would be the lines on the grid paper, and Z elevation would be coming out of it.
One more thing—depending on where you live in the world, it may be appropriate to use the word level instead of elevation. Each of the objects listed previously can be controlled by styles. In addition to changing the over- all appearance of an object, styles can control speciic details that differ slightly between similar conigurations.
The coniguration is the same contours , but the way that coniguration is displayed which layer is different between two different styles. Exercise 2. Open the drawing named Objects and Styles. The contours on the right are displayed using existing layers that are the contours appear typically lighter, so they appear more as background information. Click one of the contour lines in the drawing to select the surface object. If the Properties palette is not visible, click Properties on the Home tab of the ribbon.
The surface opened the drawing. The Note that both of the last two styles dis- triangles are the fundamental framework of the surface and give it played contours but on the shape that it haster.
Some of the contours change 6. Change the Style property to Contours 1' and 5' Design 0. Change the Style property to Contours 1' and 5' Background 0. Connecting Objects and styles 21 What Are Contours? Contours are lines that are used to represent topography or changes in elevation across the ground. Most people experience contours in things like trail maps that cover a large area square miles or square kilometers in comparison to what we typically see in Civil 3D.
By definition, contours are lines that connect points of equal elevation. If you took a giant horizontal blade and passed it through the ground at equal elevation intervals, you would get contour lines.
In flat areas, the lines would be far apart, and in steep areas, the lines would be close together. With practice, you can look at a contour map and visualize the 3D shape of the land that the map represents. These are often referred to as contextual ribbon tabs, as you may remember from the previous chapter.
Click the Display tab, and then click the color column next to Major Contour. Choose a noticeable color, and click OK. Some of the contours Objects and Styles - Complete.
As you worked through the previous exercise, did you notice that no extra steps were required to update or redraw the surface when a new style was assigned or the style was edited? The effect was immediate—as soon as you modiied the assigned style or assigned a different style, the appearance of the surface changed.
This is because of a dynamic relationship between the object and its style, a relationship that is honored throughout the software. Assigning a Different Style In steps 5 through 7 of the previous exercise, you changed the appearance of the surface by assigning a different style to it.
This is the way to do it 99 percent of the time. In steps 8 through 10, you edited the style that was already assigned to the surface. Editing styles is typically the responsibility of a CAD manager. In fact, in many companies, end users are not permitted to modify or create styles. However, it is still important to understand that when a style is modified, any object using that style will change its appearance or behavior to honor the new version of the style.
Connecting labels and label Styles Certification Labels are an important part of any design because they provide speciic Objective information about the design that is often necessary for it to be properly constructed. Civil 3D enables you to create many different types of labels that associate themselves with the different types of Civil 3D objects.
Labels are Civil 3D objects too, and just like the objects listed in the previous section, their appearance and behavior are controlled by styles. Also, just like the rela- tionship between objects and their styles, labels also react when a different style is assigned or the assigned style is modiied. Here are some label types that correspond to the Civil 3D objects listed in the previous section: Surface Spot Elevation label This type of label is typically used to display the elevation of a key point in the design, such as a low point that water will drain toward or a high point that water will drain away from.
Alignment Station offset label This type of label is used to express the location of a feature in reference to a linear object. Profile Grade Break label This type of label is used to show the location and elevation of a slope change along a proile. For example, if the proile slopes upward and then changes to a downward direction, the highest point where the change occurs is considered a grade break and is a common location to place a label. Station and offset Long linear designs such as roads and pipelines often use station and offset notation to express locations.
Stations themselves are usually expressed in a special notation that has a plus sign in it. For example, it is common to label the bearing and distance of a straight line segment along a property boundary. Open the drawing named Labels and Styles. In the top-right viewport, click the label.
Notice how the content of the label changes. This time, the content stays the same but the style of the text changes. Connecting Labels and Label styles 25 6. Click OK twice to dismiss all dialog boxes and return to the drawing. You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by opening Labels and Styles - Complete. Styles and Company Standards Civil 3D styles can make it easier for end users to meet company standards and can make graphical output more consistent.
With a good set of styles that integrate company standards, all that an end user has to worry about is choosing the right style from a manageable list of choices. A typical land development project is a collection of dozens of mini-designs that often tie in to one another. For example, a road is designed by drawing irst the 2D path of its centerline, then the proposed changes in eleva- tion along that centerline, and inally the lanes, curbs, and sidewalks extending outward from that centerline.
To provide drainage during a rainstorm, ditches must be installed along the sides of the road. The location and depth of these ditches can be traced back through the design process the entire way to the layout of the road centerline.
If the layout of the centerline needs to change for some reason, that change must propagate downstream through the design pro- cess, ultimately changing the location and depth of one or more ditches. In Civil 3D, these connections between elements of the design are present regardless of the tool that is used. Before Civil 3D, these connections had to be managed manually by engineers and designers, and every aspect affected by a design change had to be ixed manually.
With Civil 3D, these connections can be built in to the design by establishing relationships between the road center- line, the roadside ditches, and everything in between. Then, follow these steps: from locking on to objects in the drawing 1. Open Object Relationships.
Press the F3 key, and observe the command line. Be sure that your 3. Click the top-right viewport, which shows a proile of the road design. The blue lines represent storm drains and pipes connecting them. Click the black line representing the road proile. Zoom in until you can proceeding with clearly see the triangular grip located at the intersection of two lines.
Connecting Objects to Objects 27 5. Notice the 3D view 6. In the profile view top-right , the top of the drain is elevated to match the road.
The ease with which you just updated the design may cause you to take the underlying processes for granted; however, there is a lot happening behind the scenes. In addition to all this, other changes took place that did not affect the design of the storm drain.
This is the power of the Civil 3D dynamic environment. You should know, however, that the existence of these relationships is not necessarily automatic. They have to be considered and at times consciously built in to the design by the Civil 3D user. Connecting objects to labels There is also an important relationship between objects and labels. Labeling is one of the most time-consuming aspects of preparing a set of construction documents. Although it is a very important part of the process, it really has nothing to do with the design.
Usually, labels are placed when the design is already complete, as a means of communicating the necessary information for constructing the design in the ield. The big advantage of the dynamic relationship between objects and labels is that it enables the user to create a single label that is valid for the life of the object. As the object changes, the label changes with it—so the label is always up to date and never has to be edited manually. Open Objects and Labels. Notice the elevation label, which currently reads Click one of the dark gray contour lines.
This step is like using a bulldozer to cut the road 3. Press Esc to clear the selection. Appreciating the richness of the 3d Model 29 5. Click the road centerline to select it and display its grips. Because the road is no longer inluenc- ing the elevation of this spot, the label reverts to its original value of The station offset label now displays updated values for station and offset.
You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by opening Objects and Labels - Complete. The primary purpose of Civil 3D is to help you prepare the instructions for how to build a land development project.
Thirty years ago, the method used to prepare land development plans was rela- tively the same as it had been for hundreds of years: plans were drawn on paper, providing only a two-dimensional depiction of what was to be built. The informa- tion that existed for the design was limited to what could be displayed on paper. Then, with the advent of computers, something magical started to happen. Virtual versions of design components could be modeled electronically.
They could be rep- resented in all three dimensions and even have additional information attached to them. And so on, and so on. Thus, in 30 years we have progressed from ink on paper to 3D intelligent objects. The step from drawing with a pen to drawing with a mouse came early in that evo- lution—not 3D or intelligent, but lines on a screen that could be printed.
My sincere hope is that you will not be this type of end user, but instead will squeeze every dynamic rela- tionship possible into the models you build with Civil 3D. You may not realize the full potential of the dynamic relationships you build until you have the opportunity to use them, but you can bet that they will pay dividends on every single project. Building information Modeling Building information modeling BIM has been a hot topic in the design, construc- tion, and facilities management ields for quite some time now.
Although some would argue that Civil 3D has little to do with the B building , it deinitely has the I information and the M modeling aspects. Many civil engineering projects are incidental to building construction and therefore present an opportunity for Civil 3D models to be integrated with BIM. No model, no BIM.
GPS-Guided Machine Control Imagine being able to download the instructions to assemble your bike and then upload them to your own personal robot, which would assemble the bike for you. That might sound like science iction, but something similar is common practice in the land development industry. Without a model, there is no GPS-guided machine control. Construction Simulation If you think about it, one thing that Civil 3D enables you to do is to simulate the project before having the contractor attempt to build it in the ield.
Why do this? The sequence of operations, staging of mate- rials, arrangement of equipment, and many other aspects can all be simulated with several products available on the market. No model, no simulation. With design software now commonly producing 3D models, the leap to 3D visualization is much shorter and easier to accomplish than ever before.
Clients, review agencies, and the public are begin- ning to expect renderings and even animations of proposed designs to be avail- able for them to assess. No model, no visualization. Building your designs as dynamic models does take a bit more effort and time, but as you develop more and more skills, the extra time and effort become a smaller fraction of the overall process.
The resulting models are much more use- ful, much more information rich, and much more valuable to your clients and the other parties involved in your projects. In addition, building designs as dynamic models improves the quality and efi- ciency of the design process.
They can respond more quickly to design changes, reducing the overall cost involved in designing the project and increasing the bottom line. Sharing Data in a Dynamic Environment So far, you have studied many ways in which relationships and interactions are Certification Objective used to make Civil 3D a powerful design solution; but all these relationships have been conined to a single drawing or a single user. What happens in a team environment? Are there ways in which whole drawings can interact with one another?
Can multiple team members establish dynamic relationships between their designs? The answer is yes, and the feature that makes it possible is the data shortcut. Now, imagine a design team where Joe designs the proile in one drawing, Susan designs the road model in another drawing, and Jill designs the pipe system in yet another.
A data shortcut is a link to a Civil 3D object that enables another drawing to get access to that object. You or someone else can then open another drawing and use that data shortcut to access the proile. Once you have accessed the proile, you can use it as part of another design, such as the case with the road model. Data shortcuts are stored within a data short- cuts projects folder. This enables related data shortcuts, such as those pertaining to a given project, to be grouped together in one location.
The folder that contains data-shortcuts folders is the working folder. It allows you to set up one location where all projects are stored. An icon next to them indicates that they are data references. Then you will reference the alignment and surface into a third draw- ing and use the information to create a proile.
Open the ile named Surface. If the Toolspace is not visible, click Toolspace on the Home tab of the ribbon. The Browse For Folder dialog box opens. Browse to the Chapter 02 class data folder, and select Sample Working Folder. Click OK. The New Data Shortcut Folder dialog box opens. Save the drawing. Click the Manage tab of the ribbon, and then click Create Data Shortcuts. The Create Data Shortcuts dialog box opens. Check the box next to Existing Ground, and click OK.
Open the ile named Alignment. Repeat steps 7 and 8 for the alignment named Main Road A. Open the ile named Profile. Contours in the drawing indicate a newly added surface. A alignment. A new alignment is created in the drawing. The Create Proile From Surface dialog box opens. The Create Proile View — General dialog box opens. Click Create Proile View. Pick a point in the top-right viewport.
This proile represents the interaction the surface to the align- among three different drawings. Save and close all drawings. Now You Know Now that you have completed this chapter, you understand the dynamic environment of Civil 3D. You comprehend how styles are applied to objects to change their appearance and behavior.
This includes objects such as alignments and surfaces and also labels. And, finally, you can share data on a team by using data shortcuts to share design data between drawings. Now that you understand and appreciate the dynamic Civil 3D environment, you will move forward into the next chapters with greater insight. As you progress through this book, be on the lookout for instances where this dynamic environment offers power and efficiency. Remember these examples and take them with you when you begin designing your own projects using Civil 3D.
If sculptors were to create works of art from wood, they would probably begin by studying the original piece of wood, assessing its dimensions, shape, and surface features. These elements would all factor into how the sculptors would approach their work. A sculptor with some computer savvy might even model the original piece of wood on a computer and plan out each cut of material. In this chapter, we are going to explore the irst activities that are per- formed during a land-development project: the measurement, mapping, and modeling of the land in its existing form.
The measurement and mapping of land is known as surveying, and the data that is collected during the process is known as survey data. Think back to the last time you played connect-the-dots to draw a picture.
Ever wonder who made the dots and how they were made? Someone skilled at this would make just enough dots to deine the features but not so many as to make them confusing or wasteful. The dots are a way of capturing an image and transferring it to another location.
In land development, the land is the picture and the surveyor is the one who makes the dots—referred to as points. This enables a technician to play connect-the-dots in 3D to create a 3D model in addition to a 2D map of the features of the land. How can you keep track of all those points?
How can they be easily turned into a 3D model of the land? Is there some way of automat- ing the connect-the-dots process? Creating a survey database 37 Reality Capture The technology of reality capture has become more and more common in the last few years. Reality capture refers to the use of high-density laser scanners to collect millions or even billions of data points. The resulting data is often referred to as a point cloud because, due to its density, the data often looks like a cloud or fog.
With this approach, there is no need to play connect-the-dots because the data points are so close together that they define the shape of the land. The image here shows an example of point cloud data that has been imported into Civil 3D. The raw data is linked with the screen representation of the points in the survey database, which is linked with the linework generated by connecting those points, and so on.
Unzip the iles visible, you can click Toolspace on the Home to the correct location on your hard drive according to the instructions in the tab of the ribbon. If introduction. Then, follow these steps: the Survey tab is not visible, click the Survey 1. Open Civil 3D, and click New on the application menu. When icon to the right of the prompted for a template, browse to the Chapter 03 class data folder Toolspace icon.
Click the Survey tab of the Toolspace. Browse to and select the Chapter 03 class data folder, and click OK. This will create a folder in Chapter 03 named Essentials. Type Essentials as the new database name, and click OK. The Essentials database is now shown on the Survey tab.
The survey database establishes and manages relationships between these different components. Close the drawing without saving. The process of importing data requires some important questions to be answered.
Exercise 3. Unzip the iles complete steps 2—4 to the correct location on your hard drive according to the instructions in the in Exercise 3. Open the drawing named Import Survey Data. On the Home tab of the ribbon, click Import Survey Data. This 3. Select the Essentials 1 survey database, and click Next. Here are a few of the most common forms: Field Book File This is considered a legacy format unique to Autodesk products such as Land Desktop and older versions of Civil 3D.
Many surveyors have moved on from field book files but have done so fairly recently. For that reason, you might still find them to be quite common.
One difference with field book files is that they can store the measurements exactly as they were taken in the field. The other formats listed here contain points that have been reduced to coordinates. This nonproprietary format enables data to be exchanged between programs created by different software companies.
Point File The point file is probably the most generic and universally accepted way of delivering point data. This type of file is plain text and can be opened in a program like Microsoft Notepad. Regardless of age, cost, or origin, nearly all surveying and civil engineering programs are capable of producing this type of file.
Points From Drawing With this option, you can open a drawing that already contains points and add them to your survey database. Remember that the survey database is stored outside the drawing, so the points you see in the drawing are PNEZD represents a representation of what is stored there.
Then select Topo Survey. Click Next. Measurements can be linked so that accuracy 9. The survey Click Finish. Automating Field-to-Finish 41 To do this, type ZE at the command line and press Enter. You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by opening Import Survey Data - Complete. It contains the same points you just imported. Before computers, the point data collected in the A topographic map can ield was plotted on paper by hand, and draftspeople skillfully connected the dots be thought of as a and employed other methods to create the desired topographic map.
The process 3D map: the 2D outlines was manual in the truest sense of the word. Next came the irst CAD programs, of surface features in which points could be plotted on a computer screen and the dots connected combined with contour lines representing the using primitive entities such as lines, arcs, polylines, and blocks.
This is what third dimension. As you might guess, the process of making a drawing out of point data is quite tedious and presents an opportunity for automation. With no information accompanying the points, it would be nearly impossible.
You can do this using the Points From File command on the Insert tab of the ribbon, as shown in the following illustration: The resulting dialog box shown next provides only one choice for file format—a text file—and no association with a survey database or linework code is set.
These include the automatic generation of linework, accuracy adjustment, and others. Points created without the management of the survey database are easily edited. They can also be freely edited using the Properties window. Using the Points From File function is definitely quicker and simpler than using the Import Survey Data command; however, there are considerable differences in functionality.
When you choose which method to use, be sure to consider the level of protection, ease of editing, ability to generate linework, and interrelationship between points and survey measurements. Each method serves a different purpose and should be chosen appropriately. Automating Field-to-Finish 43 The following Civil 3D features enable you to convert raw ield data into drawing information. For example, they might include the string BEG when locating the irst point on a fence line, which means to begin a new feature at that point.
The linework code set correlates these ield codes with instructions that control the generation of linework in the drawing. Another way to think of a linework code set is as a translator between ield language and Civil 3D language. Then, follow these steps: correctly completing the previous exercise. This 1. Open the drawing named Linework Code Set. If you receive an 4. Expand Import Events. Right-click Topo Survey. Click the Browse icon next to File to open the text ile.
Notice the correctly. Close the text ile, and click Cancel to dismiss the Import Event Properties dialog box. Click the icon in the top-left corner of the Survey tab to edit the survey user settings. Click the plus sign next to Linework Code Sets. You should now see Essentials listed as a Linework Code Set. The codes in the linework code set named Sample were different, and therefore no line- work was drawn when you imported the survey data. Under Import Events, right-click Topo Survey.
You should see a series You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by opening of lines appear in the Linework Code Set - Complete.
As you'll learn later in this is provided for the next exercise and matches what you should have at the end of chapter, these lines this exercise.
Point Styles Not all points are meant to be connected with other points. Some represent stand-alone features such as power poles, manholes, or trees. These types of features are typically represented with a symbol that either resembles their true form or uniquely identiies them. With the Point Styles feature, a symbol can be used to mark a point, meaning the likeness of a power pole, manhole, or tree can be used instead of an x or a dot.
Point label Styles For some points, you might want labeling to be included automatically. When the annotation is very uniform, Point Label Styles can be employed to provide the desired labels automatically. Description Keys As discussed, it takes a lot of points to capture several acres of land effectively. Certification Objective To make things even more challenging, ield crews often use abbreviated ver- sions of descriptions to represent points, such as EP for edge of pavement, CLRD for centerline of road, and so on.
The result is hundreds or even thousands of points all clumped together and labeled with cryptic abbreviated descriptions. Description keys solve this problem by automatically sorting the points onto the appropriate layers, rewriting the abbreviated descriptions to full-length descrip- tions, and automatically applying point styles to control the appearance of the points.
Imagine the time saved when this is done automatically for 10, points. Open the drawing named Description Keys. Right-click Essentials, and select Edit Keys. Select Tree as the point style, and click OK.
Click the green check mark to dismiss Panorama. Click the Prospector tab, and then click Points. In the listing of points at the bottom of Prospector, scroll to the right and click the Raw Description column heading to sort the points by A raw description is usually the code that that property. Scroll to the bottom of the list where all the TR points are now located. Right-click one of the points, and select Apply Description Keys. One make it easier on field of the points in the drawing should become a tree symbol.
All the trees in the drawing are now clearly visible and appropriately represented. Return to the Settings tab, and edit the Essentials description key set once again. Apply description keys to the TR points from although the label is within Prospector as you did before. A better result would Apply the description keys to the TR points again.
You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by opening Description Keys - Complete. No change was made to the survey database during this exercise. The parts of the raw description are sepa- rated by spaces and numbered from left to right, starting at zero. This is a great way for the person in the field to control the outcome in the drawing with as few keystrokes as possible. Automating Field-to-Finish 47 Figure Prefix Database As discussed, the linework code set handles how ield codes are translated into line- Certification Objective work commands, but what happens to those features once they are drawn?
What layer are they drawn on? Do they have any special purpose such as a property line or breakline? The igure preix database is the means by which these decisions can be made up front for speciic codes. For example, any feature drawn through points coded EP edge of pavement will be drawn on the pavement layer and tagged as a key component for establishing a hard edge in the 3D model of the terrain, also known as a breakline.
Open the drawing named Figure Prefix Database. Browse to and select the Chapter 03 class data folder, and then click OK. Note that some codes 4. Right-click are designated as Figure Preix Databases, and select Refresh.
These lines can be used 5. Right-click Essentials, and select Make Current. Right-click Essentials to define hard edges in a again, and, this time, select Manage Figure Preix Database.
Scroll down, and examine the codes in the Name column. If the contents of the Essentials 3 survey database are not visible, right-click Essentials 3 and select Open For Edit. This database is provided to Civil 3D redraws the linework, the current exercise with the correct version. Survey Figures At this point, you may be wondering what the word figure means, or, specifi- cally, what a survey figure is.
A survey figure is commonly used to represent visible features such as fence lines, edges of pavement, and treelines as well as topographic features such as tops and bot- toms of embankments. The topographic feature line layers are usually turned off when the drawing is plotted. Survey figures can be referenced by other Civil 3D objects such as surfaces, feature lines, and corridors, enabling design work to tie into existing features and topography, where applicable.
Automating Field-to-Finish 49 You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by opening Figure Prefix Database - Complete. Point Groups Point groups are another way of managing large amounts of point data. This Certification Objective feature enables you to sort points based on a number of factors, such as descrip- tion, elevation, point number, and manual selection. You can set up point groups ahead of time so that points can be automatically sorted into groups as they are imported into the drawing.
You can also create new point groups on the ly to sort points as you go. Once points have been grouped, you can use them to study and manipulate multiple points at once. In addition, many point-editing commands allow you to select points by group, enabling you to modify large numbers of points at once. With this capability, you can make points in a certain group take on speciic graphical characteristics by controlling the point style and point label style.
Open the drawing named Point Groups. In Prospector, right-click Point Groups and select New. Click the Raw Description Matching tab. Expand Point Groups, and click the Buildings point group in Prospector. Examine the list of points shown in the Prospector item view at the bot- tom.
Note that they all are points with a BLD description. Create the following point groups with the associated raw descrip- tions listed. You should find 8. You may need 9. Then right-click the Style column heading, and select Edit. Click the green check mark to close Panorama.
Automating Field-to-Finish 51 Now the point style assigned by the point groups point group that must is able to have an effect, and most of the points change from x mark- exist in all drawings. As the name implies, it always contains all the In Prospector, right-click the Ground Shots point group and select points in the drawing. Secret Code? You may be wondering what the raw descriptions mean in step 6 of Exercise 3.
What you see here are abbreviations for items that are commonly located in the field by surveyors. In the interest of efficiency, abbreviated codes are typed in the field instead of the full names of the features. On the Information tab, select Ground Shot as the default point style Imagine selecting all and Elevation Only as the default point label style.
Click OK, and these road points one notice what happens to all the ground shot points in the drawing. Click the Output tab of the ribbon, and then click Export Points. Click OK, and browse to your Chapter 03 class data folder.
Enter Road Points as the name of the ile, and click Open. Then click OK to dismiss the Export Points dialog box.
You have just created a You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by opening file that only contains Description Keys - Complete. The survey database was not changed as a points in the Roads point group. You might result of this exercise.
Point Groups vs. Description Keys At this point, you may be scratching your head a bit, thinking that a few minutes ago you learned that description keys control the point style and point label style assigned to a point.
Feel better about it? One of the properties of a point group is the ability to set up an override. The Overrides tab in the Point Group Properties dialog box enables you to do this. By thoroughly understanding how each method can be applied to your point data, you can use both point groups and description keys to stylize and organize your points in the best way possible. In an actual production environment, the changes you make to the description key set should be incorporated into the company template so that the tree points are handled correctly for all future jobs.
In addition, the linework code set and figure prefix database that you use could be assigned as defaults so that they are automatically applied to future data imports. A CAD manager typically handles this type of configuration manage- ment, but end users like you usually identify the needs for the changes. On nearly every project, there will be items that require editing. Once the data has been imported into Civil 3D, the ield crew is off to its next job, and the task of ixing things up belongs to you.
The second reason, related to the irst, is that Civil 3D uses a separate survey database system to store points. With this system, a surveyor can send out the drawing ile without sharing the survey database that goes with it. In this way, the survey database gives control of the points to the person who created them.
Open the drawing named Edit Survey Points. If a survey database is open, right-click it and select Close Survey Database. Open the Properties window, and then select the red point. This description here because the data is stored in the survey database. With the point still selected, click Survey Point Properties on the the current exercise ribbon. A dialog box opens, informing you that you must open a with the correct version.
Click OK to dismiss the dialog box. With the red point still selected, click Survey Point Properties on the ribbon. How can you tell the difference? Press Enter to end the command.
Click the red point, right-click, and select Apply Description Keys. The effect of the description key puts You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by open- the point on the cor- ing Edit Survey Points - Complete. Survey igures are linked to the survey database but unlike survey points, they can be edited without accessing the survey database. If you edit survey igures in this way, you need to be aware that the objects you've edited are no longer in sync with the survey database.
When this occurs you should take steps to keep them in sync to ensure that the correct data is used in the future. Unzip the iles previous exercise. This to the correct location on your hard drive according to the instructions in the database is provided to introduction. Then, follow these steps: ensure that you start the current exercise 1. Open the drawing named Edit Survey Figures. Chapter 03 class data folder. If the contents beneath the Essentials 5 survey database are not visible, right-click Essentials 5 and select Open For Edit.
In the top-right viewport, locate the building that is missing its north side. Click the building igure line, and then click Survey Figure Properties on the ribbon. Notice that point is missing a CLS close code that would provide the north side of the building by closing the rectangle. Click point in the point list; then set the Closed value to Yes, and At this point, you click OK.
The shape of the building is now closed. Because you used could back out and fix the Survey Figure Properties command to edit this igure, the draw- the point description.
However, for the pur- poses of this exercise, 5. Press Esc to clear the previous selection. This instead. Click the building igure, and then click Survey Figure Properties on the ribbon. Creating Additional points 57 7. In the Figure Properties dialog box, click point and then click the red X icon. Remove points , , and in the same manner. Click OK to close the Figure Properties dialog box. Now only the north building is shown in the drawing.
Click the four points that make up the smaller building, and then press Enter. In the Figure Properties dialog box, set the Closed value to Yes. If neces- sary, adjust the order of the points using the arrow buttons.
Click Apply and then OK when the blue igure outline appears as a rectangle in the drawing. You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by opening Edit Survey Figures - Complete.
Creating Additional Points You may occasionally need to create your own points to establish key locations in Certification Objective the drawing. For example, early in the design, you may want to show speciic loca- tions for proposed test borings or property corners that need to be found. Civil 3D has a multitude of tools designed to create points easily and eficiently. They are found on a special toolbar that opens when you click the Point Creation Tools command on the Home tab of the ribbon.
In many ways, the points you create using these tools are treated in the same manner as those created by importing survey data. They can be placed in point groups and can respond to description keys.
They can also be affected by point styles and point label styles. There are differences, however, between these points and those created by importing survey data. Regardless of how they are created, all points can be exported to a ile that can be uploaded to a portable device and taken to the ield to be staked out. These points will represent the locations of soil-test borings to be performed on the site. Open the drawing named Stake Out. This drawing contains a calculated property bound- Stake out is a term used by surveyors to refer to ary reconstructed from a deed or other source of information.
It also placing markers in the contains a preliminary layout of the road centerlines that will be used field at predetermined to determine soil-test boring locations. On the Insert tab of the ribbon, click Points From File. Then click the plus sign icon and browse to the Chapter 03 class data folder.
Creating Additional points 59 4. Then select Found Corners. Click OK to dismiss the Import Points dialog box. In Prospector, expand Point Groups. Right-click Found Corners, and bers as the points that select Update. This applies the default styles from the point group to the newly This is resolved by imported points.
Found corners appear with red markers and text. Finding and locating these cor- ners in the ield will greatly improve the accuracy and validity of the property survey. On the Create Points toolbar, click the button on the far left to launch the Miscellaneous Manual tool. In the left viewport, snap to the loca- tions of the missing points. These points display in blue. On the Create Points toolbar, click the chevron on the far right to expand the toolbar.
Click the down arrow on the button farthest to the left, and then click Measure Object. Click one of the magenta road centerlines. Press Enter three times to accept the default starting station, ending station, and offset. Type an interval of 80 , and press Enter. In Prospector, update the Test Borings point group. Repeat steps 13 to 16 for the remaining road centerlines.
On the Output tab of the ribbon, click Export Points. Click OK, and browse to the Chapter 03 class data folder. Specify a the field. Repeat steps 19 to 21 for the Test Boring point group to create a Test Borings. You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise This file could be sent to a geotechnical company by opening Stake Out - Complete.
There was no change to the so that they can stake survey database as a result of this exercise. Now You Know Now that you have completed this chapter, you understand the world of survey data as it exists in the Civil 3D environment.
You understand that survey data must reside in a survey database that exists separately from the drawing file. You know how to import data into the survey database and display it in your drawing as points and linework. You know how to automate the organization and graphical properties of the points and linework using linework code sets, description keys, the figure prefix database, and point groups.
You can edit survey points and survey figures by accessing the survey database and making changes using the appropriate tools. Finally, you know several additional methods for importing points and creating them manually. Many would say the goal in this process is to generate existing contours for the project. Twenty years ago, that would have been the case; but in this era of 3D modeling, the result of your efforts will serve a much greater purpose.
In addition, you need the result to be a 3D model rather than just lines. To accomplish this, Civil 3D uses a computer algorithm that con- nects the dots in the most eficient and accurate way possible.
The TIN algorithm works by connecting one point to at least two of its neigh- bors using 3D lines. Because each point connects to two or more of its neighbors, the resulting model looks something like a spider web made up of triangles the T in TIN.
The network the N in TIN part comes from all the points being connected by lines, and the points and lines being related to one another. Note the irregular triangular shapes that make up the surface model. What is useful is that the algorithm can calculate the eleva- tion of any point within the area covered by the TIN model.
So, even if you pick a point in the open space inside a triangle, the elevation will be calculated. It can be sliced, be turned on its side, have water poured on it, be excavated, and be illed in—all virtually, of course. The capability of using surface models for these types of calculations and simulations is what makes them so useful and puts them at the core of Civil 3D functionality. The fundamental components of a surface are points and lines.
Open the drawing named Create an EG Surface. In Prospector, right-click Surfaces and select Create Surface. Click OK to dismiss the Create Surface dialog box. Right-click Point Groups, and select Add. Select Ground Shots, and click OK.
The surface is now visible in plan view in the form of contours and shaded 3D faces in the bottom-right 3D view. The appearance of the surface changes to show This way of studying the surface gives a real the TIN lines.
Click 2D Wireframe and select Conceptual. To orbit your view of the surface, click and drag center mouse button while holding your Shift key. Observe the surface from several different viewpoints. You can view the results of successfully completing this exercise by opening Create an EG Surface - Complete.
In certain instances, this is not the most accurate way to model the surface, and the TIN lines must be forced into a speciic arrangement. This arrangement typically coincides with a linear feature such as a curb, the top of an embankment, or a wall. This forced alignment of TIN lines along a linear feature is best handled with a breakline. In the image on the top, the blue lines have not been added to the chan- nel surface as breaklines, resulting in a rough and inaccurate representation of the channel.
In the image on the bottom, the breaklines have been applied and force the TIN lines to align with the edges of the channel, producing a much smoother and more accurate model. When it comes to survey data, there is an even easier way. How does the command know which is which? This was speciied in the igure preix database you learned about in Chapter 3. As the igures were created, they were automatically tagged as breaklines or non-breaklines according to the code assigned to the points that deine them.
The following list describes each one briefly: Boundaries Boundaries are used to control where the surface is. A boundary around the edge of a surface can keep it contained within a certain area. Another type of boundary can keep a surface out of an interior area, like a pond or building. Breaklines Breaklines force TIN lines to align with them. In this way, they help to define hard edges such as edges of embankments, curb lines, ditch lines, and so on.
Contours Usually, we think of contours as the end product of building a surface, but they can also be used as a source of data for a surface. DEMs can often be found alongside large-scale mapping data and are typically only accurate enough for rough analysis or calculations. There are many ways in which a surface can be edited to improve its accu- racy or usability.
Some of these editing methods will be covered in this chapter. Point Groups In Chapter 3, you learned that one of the benefits of point groups is that they enable multiple points to be selected simultaneously. Using one or more point groups to define a surface is one of the most important and most common uses of point groups in Civil 3D. Point Survey and Figure Survey Queries These queries are created using the survey functionality and utilize a sophisticated way of selecting points and figures based on survey properties.