All that Nehru needs to keep up the secular pretense is to have a token Muslim in the Cabinet. How different is this tokenism from the one in vogue all the years since ? The middle portion of the book focuses on the communally charged events which shaped the share and size of the contemporary Indian largely Hindutva politics.
Large scale anti-Muslim riots, the planning and demolition of the Babri Masjid, Gujarat and Muzaffarnagar riots etc. Sadly, this glorious tradition has been systematically destroyed over the past century. Music Detective Historical Social Others Parody 7. Philosophy India 2. Prosody Publications Of Munshi Naval Kishore Remnants BBC News. Department of Education, Govt. In rural areas, the highest level of poverty was reported by the STs Among religious communities, Muslims reported the highest poverty ratio in urban areas In rural areas, the poverty ratiofor Muslims stood at It was disproportionately high in the states of Assam, Muslim poverty was more pronounced in urban areas, were nearly half of their population 44 per cent counted amongst the poorest compared to the national average of 29 per cent.
In the rural areas of the country, where the Muslims 33 per cent appear to be in better state, they continue to lag behind the national average poverty ration 28 per cent. The goal of reducing extreme poverty by half as envisaged in the MDG seems unlikely in the case of Muslims. For instance, in the urban areas, this would require a decline to This would require a decennial decline of at least 12 per cent points; but Muslim urban poverty reduced by only 3 per cent points in the period to 44 per cent.
In the rural areas, Muslims followed the national trend of recording a sharp decline in incidence of poverty during the same period, however maintaining the same pace in the following decade to would be daunting See Appendix: Table1.
Unlike in urban areas, where decline in Muslim poverty is the slowest, Muslims in rural areas do hold promises of faster economic recovery. A recent study using the official poverty line suggests a much faster rate of poverty decline 7. Despite a relatively higher decline in rural areas, at the end of the year , Muslims counted among the poorest In the rural areas, Muslims count amongst the poorest with This is to be achieved by ensuring that by children, boys and girls, alike will be able to complete a full course of primary school.
Net enrolment ratio in primary education, proportion of pupil starting at grade I who reach grade II, and literacy rate of age group are the indicators proposed to measure success. Bhat, A. Das, et. S University, Baroda, p. The Census figures returned Muslims as least literates among all religious. The recent NSSO education round further confirmed a high proportion of Muslims as illiterates. Muslim women In terms of levels of educational attainment, nearly one-fourth A substantial proportion of Muslims—male 18 per cent and female The NSS also provides data on current attendance for the age group between years.
A significantly large section of the Muslims Nearly one-third of them Only The educational deprivation of Muslims is further compounded by the fact that even in the current school going age group year , enrolment of Muslims remains poor as more than one-fifth The MDGs rest on education as the major tool to bring about gender equality. It therefore emphasises on eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education, and at all subsequent levels of education.
Correspondingly the ratio of literate women to men in the age group is one of the indicators for measuring success in instituting gender equality. Apart from educational data, the share of women in wage employment and proportion of seats held by women in the national legislature are other measurements proposed in the MDG scheme. In India, across all social groups, gender disparity at various levels of education appears insurmountable. According to the Census, Due to an improvement in female literacy, the gender gap in literacy closed by nearly 5 per cent points in the period However in the ensuing decade of , the gender gap reduced by only a further 3 per cent points indicating a slowing down of the process.
Going by crude literacy figures, Muslim women In the absence of comparative figures from the and Census exercises, estimation based on general progress in female literacy does not suggest a healthy trend. It is observed that Muslim girls, both in urban and rural areas, have a very high proportion of those who. However, the gender gap is considerable amongst Muslims at 8 per cent points.
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Arcade Publishing. Roli Books. Bharatiya Gyanapitha. Patel thought otherwise. When Gandhiji supported Nehru, Patel lost his temper. When I was about ten years old, I had befriended the son of our maid, who was quite elder to me and used to play around with him a lot. He was affectionate, gentle and quite playful with me. It upset my grandparents who had come to live with us only recently then and they asked my mother to speak to me about it.
My mother, being the post-graduate and the liberal she was, never could bring up the word "lower-caste" into the conversation. She ended up saying that he is "dirty". But I got the whole message clear and loud and ignored it thoroughly. But for my parents' liberal upbringing, I would have been a Hindu who could easily "other" people.
I said all this because I wanted to set the context in which we have to understand the book. The Hindu-Muslim divide is quite a complicated subject.
I had only partially understood it's religious roots. Bhairappa and James Michener. I thought I understood their religious ideologies and the influences they would have had in their lifetimes to believe and act as they did. And I had strongly felt that if both would have met, then they would have found a middle-ground and be comfortable with each other.
Perhaps they would even be friends! This book brought into sharp focus the political side of the equation, which was rather hidden to me. It also introduced me to the concept of "Soft Saffronization" which every political party and every political leader exploited to deepen the divide between both religions.
I began to see that the roots of the divide have been sown by the British right from This makes it a year-old conflict, brewed and shapeshifted to a near perfect schism through numerous incidents such as the partition, the Babri Masjid conflict, the Godhra incident, the Kashmir issue and a score of other events.
Learning about these events from the point of view of "the other" was not only an emotional experience but also raised a few questions on human frailty and fallacy. Naqvi's narrative is powerful. He claims his facts and attributes it to his balanced point of view as a journalist. Referring to numerous studies, books and other journalistic anecdotes from his experience, he provides "proof" to the claims.
His simple hypothesis is this. Each political party has had its share of the harvest of this dividend. What I mean to say is that, however balance one might try to achieve, it's a subjective analysis of opinions and views expressed by others, dotted with findings from reports of many a committee formed to study the "status of Muslims", albeit by a Government that wants to "appease" the Muslim community.
This is where I would like to take with a pinch of salt the arguments presented in this book. I would like to believe that any representation of a "Minority Community" under such circumstances would always tend to be biased towards generating sympathy for the community so as to gain more of a benefit than not.
Narasimha Rao and the like. The world sees them differently. History has shown them as such. The legends that they are, one must remember they are human beings and not Gods.
Their logic and ethics are as skewed as any of ours. Just because their decisions did not fare well with the minority community doesn't mean that they had malice in their hearts. Though this book doesn't imply that, giving it the name of "Soft Saffronization" is going a little overboard. But I have to give it that Naqvi has no malice too. He is presenting a point of view. His point of view.