EMBED for wordpress. Want more? Klen-Lester Lezama-Huaripata. The link published doesn't work anymore. I would be pleased to have it again, thanks for sharing. Ivan Pokrovsky. Vallejo, Steven A. George Karamalis. Basic Concepts. Homeopathy Adolescent Health. Integrated Disease Surveillance Project Typhoid Fever Triggers Polio Trigger. Plague Triggers. Dengue Triggers. Triggers for Syndromic Surveillance. Japanese Encephalitis Triggers. Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses Community-Based Rehabilitation.
Social Security. List of Subjects. New Initiative in Social Security. Swine Flu. Hospital Statistics. The Ogive. Normal Distribution Limitations of the Mean. Miscellaneous Problems What is New About it? Can it be Simply. Described in a Few Words? Baby Friendly Hospital? Leprosy by Community medicine is comparatively a newcomer among academic disciplines of medicine. Previously it was taught to medical students as hygiene and public health.
This name was later changed to preventive and social medicine when it was realized that the subject encompassed much more than merely the principles of hygiene and sanitation and public health engineering.
The name preventive and social medicine emphasizes the role of: a disease prevention in general through immunization, adequate nutrition, etc. The modern day message is that the discipline variously labeled in the past as public health or preventive and social medicine cannot be divorced from health care, including clinical care of the community. It is in recognition of this wider role that the Medical Council of India has recently decided to label the discipline as Community Medicine in place of Preventive and Social Medicine.
Challenges of 21st century are not only to combat diseases producing microbes but also to recognize that many of the causes of ill health are increasingly related to lifestyle, man-made changes in environment, and disparity and inequality in resources distribution within country and between the countries. Developed world is facing epidemiological transition that is transition from infectious diseases as measles, diphtheria, and pneumonia to chronic diseases as heart diseases, cancer, stroke and diabetes, which consisted 9 out of 10 leading causes of deaths.
This transition is mainly due to improved water supply, sewerage, and less crowded living environment, application of the preventive health services, such as immunization, preventive health check- ups, specific food interventions and use of highly developed curative technology. Now, developing countries are experiencing the double burden of diseases, i. Another important concern is the world population that has increased three- fold in last century whereas India has increased almost five times in the same duration.
The number of persons living in urban areas increased globally from 32 percent of world population in to 38 percent in , and to 45 percent in It is expected to reach 54 percent by World Health Report In India, the urban population during was percent only and in was It has been estimated that the disease burden of the people of India is one of the highest in the world Table 1. We have a triple burden of infectious diseases. Firstly, we have those infectious diseases that are prevalent worldwide and for which specific preventive measures are yet not available.
Secondly, we have infectious diseases that are prevalent because of insufficient public health measures. Thirdly, we have infectious diseases perpetuated by the prevalence of vectors hematophagous arthropods as well as vertebrate fauna, the ecological determinants of which are given due to our geoclimatic features. Poor economy of the country. Maldistribution of country resources. Poor governance and management to utilize resources appropriately.
Poor people participation. Table 1. Disease or injury. Poor level of literacy of the people. Geographical characteristics of the country for certain diseases like malaria, filaria, etc. Poor political commitment. Poor policy. Poor scientific development. Religious belief system and cultural practices of the population. About 17 percent of all deaths and about 21 percent of all illnesses are due to communicable diseases. The major problems continue to be tuberculosis, filariasis, leprosy, malaria, diarrheal diseases and malnutrition.
Among viral diseases smallpox was eradicated in Measles continues to be rife frequency in occurrence, and so is viral hepatitis. Since , the country has been experiencing large scale outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis. Dengue fever is also emerging as another health problem. This book is provided with online content which includes additional practical and viva questions, answers to practice exercises, links to health programmes and useful websites, and images in community medicine.
If you wish to place a tax exempt order please contact us. Sample protocols are available to design standardized or individualized treatment regimens with second- line anti-TB drugs to be used in DOTS-Plus pilot projects. Sustained government commitment. Accurate, timely diagnosis through quality assured culture and drug susceptibility assured culture and drug susceptibility testing DST. Appropriate treatment utilizing second-line drugs under strict supervision. Uninterrupted supply of quality assured anti-TB drugs: and 5.
Standardized recoding and reporting system. Strategy and Focus 1. Green Light Committee Initiative Component two of the stop TB strategy calls for the control and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MDR-TB through: i increased access to quality-assured second-line anti-TB drugs; and ii prevention of development of resistance to anti-TB drugs.
The GLC initiative therefore contributes to reducing transmission of TB, preventing further drug resistance and ultimately reducing the global burden of TB. In a person infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HIV is a potent cause of progression of tuberculosis infection to disease.
Compared to an individual who is not infected with HIV, an individual infected with HIV has a 10 times increased risk of developing tuberculosis. The immune system is less able to prevent the growth and local spread of M. The duration of TB in HIV infected persons is more difficult on account of more non-TB respiratory diseases, more smear negative, disseminated and extrapulmonary TB and X-rays being less specific.
Fortunately more than 90 percent of surviving HIV infected TB can be cured provided complete treatment is taken regularly. The causative organism, Mycobacterium lepreae was discovered in by Hanson Norway.
Sulphon drugs were introduced for treatment of leprosy in Burden of Leprosy World There are around 1. Leprosy remains a public health problem in 55 countries, but 16 countries account for 91 percent of the total number of registered cases and five of them Brazil, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, and Nigeria account for about 82 percent. Globally 60 percent of the estimated cases are contributed by India.
Out of the total Essential Indicators for Leprosy An indicator is a calculation, which is used to measure different aspects of leprosy control. Indicators can give different information: a. They can tell how big or how serious is the problem of leprosy in the area. It can help one to analyze the situation regarding leprosy in the area.
They can help to assess how well the leprosy control program is functioning. This will help to plan and run program more efficiently. The following indicators are mainly used. Prevalence Rate Point Prevalence Rate Prevalence indicates the quantum of morbidity due to leprosy in the community.
Prevalence rate is calculated by using the following formula. It is calculated as follows: No. A reduction in new case detection rate indicates a reduction in transmission. The No. Sources of infection: Lepromatous and borderline lepromatous cases in the family or among close contacts. Mode of transmission: a. Droplet infection b. Contact transmission. Period of communicability: Lepromatous and borderline cases become noninfectious within two weeks of treatment with rifampicin or three months of treatment with dapsone.
Incubation period: Long, usually three to five years, shorter incubation in tuberculoid leprosy. Secondary attack rate: Five to twelve percent. Host 1. Age: Occurs at all ages, with maximum incidence during 10 to 20 years 2. Sex: More in males, M:F is in all types of leprosy and in lepromatous type of leprosy.
Environmental and Social Factors 1. Physical environment 2. Social environment 3. Biological environment. Physical environment: The factors are: a. Large family size b. Over crowding c. Poor ventilation d. Urban slum. Social environment: Deep rooted prejudices lead to social ostracism of patients with leprosy, Thus, there is delay in seeking treatment, thereby increasing the possibility of transmission.
Biological environment: Wild armadillos in limited area of USA have been found to be infected. Genetic factor-HLA linked gene b.
Migration Mode of Transmission 1. Droplet infection 2. Contact transmission 3. Other routes a. Breast milk b. Insect vector c. Tattooing needles. Clinical Features Presentation depends upon cell mediated immunity of the patient Tables 4. Communicable Diseases 37 Table 4. Poor immunity Lepromatous LL leprosy 2. Nasal symptoms: a. Stuffiness b. Crust formation c. Blood stained discharged from nose.
Edema of legs and ankles: a. Bilateral and symmetrical b. More marked in the evening. Other overt manifestations include: 1. Skin lesions: a. Macules more common, papules and nodules. Bilateral symmetrical and large. Sites: Face, arms, buttocks, legs and trunk. Leonine facies: a. Thickening of skin of forehead, causes deepening of the natural lines. Ear lobes are thickened. Eyebrows are lost madarosis. Nasal bridge may collapse.
Superficial nerves: a. Thickened b. Glove and stocking anesthesia. Testicular atrophy leading to: a. Sterility b. Impotence c. Bone: a. Periostitis b. Disuse osteoporosis.
Eye: a. Superficial punctate keratitis. Diagnosis 1. Clinical examination 2. Bacteriological examination 3. Foot-pad culture 4. Histamine test 5. Biopsy 6. Immunological tests. Clinical Examination Diagnosis is fairly easy in lepromatous and non-lepromatous cases if the disease is just kept in mind.
Simple diagnostic guidelines have been outlined by WHO. Difficulty may arise in the indeterminate type. Nasal smear may also be used.
Skin and nerve biopsy may be performed in non-lepromatous cases. Early detection of subclinical cases is obviously of great importance in control of leprosy. The following three are helpful in this: i. Enlargement of great auricular nerve. Search for AFB in ear lobes of contacts of leprosy patients. Immunological test aimed at assessing cell mediated or humoral immunity.
The most commonly used test for cell mediated immunity is the lepromin test, using either the Mitsuda or Dharmendra lepromin preparation.
There is evidence that the tests for humoral immunoresponse, such as FLA-ABS, may be much more sensitive than lepromin test alone. The government has brought out a simple guide for medical officers to help them to diagnose and manage leprosy patients.
Some practical guidelines for diagnosis are given below. What are the principles of skin examination? How does one examine the skin? Choose a spot where good light is available. As far as possible, choose a spot where there is privacy. Always examine the whole skin from head to toe. Use the same order of examination always so that you do not forget to examine any part of the body. Compare both sides of the body. Communicable Diseases 39 What should one look for in the skin?
This is useful for classification and follow-up. Lesions of leprosy are never depigmented. Erythematous color can be used to identify disease activity or a reactional state Active lesions or those in reaction are often red. Loss of sensation is a cardinal sign of leprosy. This practical manual is the first book of Community Medicine Practicals which covers Spotters,exercises with solutions, clinicosocial cases, theory viva, field visits,diet survey ,balanced diet, food values, family study and a lot more.
Additional digital content is also very useful. It is useful for UGs as well as PGs. Nice pictures , colorful presentation, some more viva questions could be added. One person found this helpful. Medicos Pdf : download free medical book and slide. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. Unbound Medicine, Inc. Explain Medicine. Sapiens Publishing Ltd pp Ultrasound Imaging Hardware implementation, transducer, beamforming, signal processing, measurement of elasticity and diagnosis Masayuki Tanabe Editor InTech ppEssentials of Community Medicine. A Practical Approach. Lalita D Hiremath MD. Professor Department of Community Medicine. Dhananjaya A Hiremath MD. Professor Department of Anesthesia. SJ Nagalotimath. Overseas Offices. Jaypee-Highlights Medical Publishers Inc. Website: www. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the publisher. Inquiries for bulk sales community medicine practical book pdf free download be solicited at: jaypee jaypeebrothers. This book has been published in good faith that the contents provided by the authors contained herein are original, and is intended for educational community medicine practical book pdf free download only. While every effort is made to ensure accuracy of information, the publisher and the authors specifically disclaim any damage, liability, or loss incurred, directly or indirectly, from the use or community medicine practical book pdf free download of any of the contents of this work. If not specifically stated, all figures and tables are courtesy of the authors. First 200 pounds beauty ave maria mp3 free download Reprint: Second Edition: Essentials of Medical Physiology K. Sembulingam PDF Download [Direct Link] Gupta Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine PDF FREE Download. Community Medicine Practical Workbook is the first complete practical book in community The book is an effort to bridge the gap between the community medicine academic curriculum and various entrance examinations. Join for free What do you want to download? Citation only. Citation and abstract. Download. As of today we have 83,, eBooks for you to download for free. A community medicine or public health textbook by AFMC, Pune, India Text Book of Oxford American Handbook of Clinical Examination and Practical Skills (Oxford. 1 Community Medicine A Students Manual () [PDF] [UnitedVRG].pdf · 2 Park's Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine 23rd. Essentials of Community Medicine - A Practical spacesdoneright.com - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for. Surinder Kumar - Textbook of Microbiology (PDF Free Download) See below for more details. Details Format: Fully searchable PDF with bookmar. “The Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine by Dr Mahajan and Dr Gupta is a very importance, both in theory, practical and viva of MBBS examination have been highlighted with examples and get priority when it comes to providing free medical care info/ctg/en_EN/pdf/ctg_en_en_ctg_spacesdoneright.com [accessed on. How can I directly download a PDF of The Sawbones Book: The Hilarious, You can go for e-book learning networking chain by being a member of any learning society viz. any What is the best website to download free medical books? Get all the medical books for free and also you can download spacesdoneright.com can also find all the drug and disease information. If you need any kind of books like. From rapidly changing diagnostic and treatment protocols to new technologies to the wide range of biologic, psychologic, and social problems faced by children. Comments Thank you for this very useful websites… I am a consultant physician. Thank u. Can u please add sabiston book for surgery. The book is designed with many figures and tables for easy understanding. About the Author : - G. Respiratory System Examination Skills. Extends a managerial treatment to the description of health organizations, health programmes and health care systems existing in the country. Thanks for your contribution,. It will assist many Medical students in Clinical Medicine to equip themselves in the effective and efficient management of patients. The Epidemiology section though kind of irritates but is easy if you can mug up things fast. Viva part includes important sample theory viva questions with answers.