Introducing Best Practices. Culture and Leadership. Understanding Maintenance. Work Management: Planning and Scheduling.
Materials, Parts, and Inventory Management. Measuring and Designing for Reliability and Maintainability. The Role of Operations. PM Optimization. Managing Performance. Workforce Management. Current Trends and Practices. Answer Key and Exp lanations. Supplemental Glossary. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Read free for days Sign In. Interested in the accompanying Workbook? Click on the "Resources" tab immediately above to read the full review.
The first edition of the award-winning Maintenance and Reliability Best Practices immediately became one of the most widely read texts by maintenance, reliability, operations, and safety professionals. It is also being used at many colleges and universities throughout the world. Maintenance and Reliability Best Practices, Second Edition has become a standard reference for anyone preparing for maintenance and reliability professional exams. In the time since original publication, this book has become a must-have guide and reference.
He is responsible for creating a reliability culture across AEDC and for building and designing reliability into new systems. Recently, Ramesh served as a U. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item?
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Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. If your correct answers are: 50 or more. Availability The probability that an asset is capable of performing its intended function satisfactorily, when needed, in a stated environment. Availability is a function of reliability and maintainability. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis FMEA A technique to examine an asset, process, or design to determine potential ways it can fail and the potential effects; and subsequently identify appropriate mitigation tasks for highest priority risks.
Maintenance and Reliability Best Practices These are maintenance and reliability practices which have been demonstrated by organizations who are leaders in their industry. These organizations are the quality producers with competitive prices in their industry.
MTBF is usually used for repairable assets of similar type. Both terms are used as a measure of asset reliability. These terms are also known as mean life.
MTTR is a measure of asset maintainability. MRO Stores Inventory Turns Inventory turns identify how quickly specific types of inventory are flowing through the inventory system. Normally, this is divided into at least two categories: 1 operating supplies that are supposed to turn frequently; and 2 spare parts which will usually have a lower turnover.
PercentPlanned Work The amount of planned maintenance work that was completed versus the total maintenance hours available. The condition of equipment could be measured using condition monitoring, statistical process control, or equipment performance, or through the use of the human senses.
Preventive Maintenance PM An equipment maintenance strategy based on inspection, component replacement, and overhauling at a fixed interval, regardless of its condition at the time. Usually scheduled inspections are performed to assess the condition of an asset.
Replacing service items — e. PM inspection may require another work order to repair other discrepancies found during the PM in a scheduled outage. Proactive Work The sum of all maintenance work that is completed to avoid failures or to identify defects that could lead to failures failure finding. It includes routine preventive and predictive maintenance activities and work tasks identified from them. Reliability Centered Maintenance RCM A systematic and structured process to develop an efficient and effective maintenance plan for an asset to minimize the probability of failures.
The process insures safety and mission compliance. Schedule Compliance A measure of adherence to the maintenance schedule. It is usually computed on either a daily or a weekly basis, and is based on hours.
When implemented appropriately, a best practice should improve performance and efficiency in a specific area. Understand that best practice is a relative term. A practice may be routine or standard to some, but to others, it may be a best practice because their current practice or method is not effective in producing the desired results. A best practice is often not what everyone else is doing, but is what is possible to achieve.
It requires persuasive techniques that rely more on appeals rather than force. A best practice is usually requires a change in process; thus, it need to be accepted by all for successful implementation. Reliability and maintainability are important asset attributes. They are usually designed into the assets to minimize maintenance needs by using reliable components that are easy to repair if they fail.
A best practice tends to spread throughout an industry after a success has been demonstrated. However, demonstrated best practices can often be slow to implement, even within an organization. Knowledge about current best practices 2. Knowledge and skills required to do so The work force needs to have the knowledge of best practices in the area of maintenance and reliability so that they can implement them effectively. Penton Media Publications, — Mitchell, John S. Physical Asset Management Handbook.
Clarion Technical Publishing, Making Common Sense to Common Practice. Butterworth Heinemann, Annual Conference Proceedings. Effective management is discipline, carrying it out. The implementation requires enthusiasm rather than distrust or fear from the individuals who will be impacted by the change. Guiding, nurturing, and shepherding the work force are the skills needed to ensure that changes are received and implemented with a positive attitude.
Usually, how the work force perceives these changes, their beliefs, values, attitudes, and expectations are a few of the factors that need to be evaluated and considered in developing a "change" implementation plan.
The vision of where the organization wants to be is an important element of creating a reliability culture. Steven Covey, the leading motivational author, emphasizes the importance of mission, vision statement, and goals when he talks about "beginning with the end in mind" in his famous best seller, 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Organizations using mission and vision statements successfully outperform those that do not by several times, according to a study done by a Stanford Management professor, as reported in The Wall Street Journal.
When we visualize, we are able to materialize and convert our vision into goals and then into reality. Leadership plays a key role in enabling this process by providing both direction and resources. Creating a reliability culture conducive to change is a long journey.
It is not just the maintenance work force that needs to change their thinking, but also others in the organization, including operations, production, design, stores, and information technology departments. All need to be together as a team to create a sustainable reliability culture. All organizations want to improve their processes in order to become efficient and effective. These efforts could require changes in work practices, processes, and organization structure. Eventually these changes become part of daily work habits in the organization and lead to a positive reliability culture.
Leadership creates vision and energizes people to make organizations and people successful. Figure 2. Charisma 2. Competence 3. Energizing people 5. Vision in creating Figure 2. One of the important factors impeding success in an organization is lack of or not enough leadership support to implement changes. It has been found that successful leaders share a number of qualities needed to improve their processes. Leadership is a key enabler in creating an environment to implement reliability strategies, which helps in fostering a "reliability" culture in the long run.
True leadership is uncommon in today's society and organizations because it is not genuinely understood. Furthermore, it has been misinterpreted, according to James McGregor Burns, author of the book, Leadership. He wrote in this landmark book that: Leadership is leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals that represent the values and the motivations — the wants and needs, the aspirations and expectations — of both leaders and followers.
And the genius of leadership lies in the manner in which leaders see and act their own and their followers' values and motivations. Donald Phillips, the author of Lincoln on Leadership — Executive Strategies for Tough Times, points out the following of Lincoln's principles on leadership.
The principle has also been referred to us by other names and phrases, such as "roving leadership," "being in touch," and "get out of the ivory tower. Effective leadership is not easy.
History has shown us that the responsibilities and hazards of leadership are as great as its rewards. Recent studies in the field of leadership recognize and stress the need for building strong interpersonal relationships and bonds. In their book, Leaders, Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus note that "leadership establishes trust, leaders pay attention; they have the ability to trust others even if the risk seems great. In much the same way, organizations prosper or die as the result of their leader's ability to embody and communicate the organization's vision.
Effective visions, according to Tom Peters, are inspiring. They should be "clear and challenging — and about excellence. An effective vision empowers people and prepares for the future while also having roots in the past. Role of a Change Agent The change agent is another important person who helps implement changes successfully. Change agents have the clout, conviction, charisma, and resourcefulness to make things happen and keep others engaged in implementing best practices.
Culture refers to an organization's values, beliefs, and behaviors. In general, it is the beliefs and values which define how people interpret experiences and behave, individually and in groups. Culture is both a cause and a consequence of the way people behave. Cultural statements become operationalized when leaders articulate and publish the values of their organization.
They provide the pattern for how employees should behave. Organizations with strong work cultures including reliability cultures achieve higher results because employees sustain focus both on what to do and how to do it. Behavior and success are two key enablers in creating the culture.
There is circular flow of mutual causation among organizational behavior, success, and culture, as shown in Figure 2. When a change is accepted by the team members, it changes their behavior. They do tasks differently as required by the new change. Then, if their work gets more done easily, they can see some success. This success makes them accept the change and leads to changing habits or routine work methods. Eventually it becomes part of culture to do the tasks the new way Figure 2.
It has to be shown why preventive and condition based approaches are better than reactive work. Making people change what they do or how they think takes time. After all, it took them long time to build their habit to begin with. People do certain things in particular ways. In turn, when we ask them to do differently or ask them to buy into our plan vision , we are taking them out of their comfort zone.
We must have very convincing reasons for people to change; we must inspire them to accept change. These reasons would help greatly the in implementation process.
We have found that implementing changes in small steps or in a small pilot area helps the process. Influencing the behavior to change 2. The valuation of an asset-dependent organization is significantly affected by the effectiveness with which that asset is managed.
This framework, which is illustrated in Figure 2. In fact, it has been found that organizations whose employees understand the mission and goals enjoy a 29 percent greater return than other organizations, as reported by the Watson Wyatt Work Study.
Vision A vision statement is a short, succinct, and inspiring declaration of what the organization intends to become or to achieve at some point in the future Figure 2. Vision refers to the category of intentions that are broad, all-inclusive, and forward-thinking. It is the image that a business must have of its goals before it sets out to reach them. It describes aspirations for the future, without specifying the means that will be used to achieve those desired ends.
Also, being a great place to work The Coca Cola Company where people are inspired to be best they can be. We will produce outstanding financial returns by providing totally reliable, competitively superior, global, air-ground transportation of high quality Federal Express goods and documents that require rapid, time-certain delivery.
For a vision to have any impact on the employees of an organization, it has to be conveyed in a dramatic and enduring way. The most effective visions are those that inspire, ask employees for their best and communicate that constantly.
A vision statement is a pronouncement about what an organization wants to become. It should resonate with all members of the organization and help them feel proud, excited, and part of something much bigger than themselves. A vision statement should stretch the organization's capabilities and image of itself. It gives shape and direction to the organization's future.
Visions range in length from a couple of words to several pages. Warren Bennis, a noted writer on leadership, says, "To choose a direction, leaders must have developed a mental image of the possible and desirable future state of the organization. This image, which we call a vision, may be as vague as a dream or as precise as a goal or a mission statement". The SMRP is a leading, not-for-profit, Maintenance and Reliability Society which provides opportunities for its members to exchange best practices and other educational and networking opportunities through conferences or workshops.
It has taken the initiative to standardize maintenance definitions including metrics. Sometimes a picture portraying the vision can convey the message very effectively.
Maintenance Vision statement To leverage a highly-skilled work force and employ effective maintenance strategies in order to position XYZ organization as the leading manufacturer across the industry. Maintenance Vision statement A world-class maintenance system with a standardized approach to plan, execute, track, and analyze maintenance and production processes. The vision must convey the essence of how the organization desires to accomplish feats that prove to be big, exciting and compelling.
Mission Statements Mission and vision statements are very different. A mission statement is an organization's vision translated into written form. It's the leader's view of the direction and purpose of the organization. For many corporate leaders, it is a vital element in any attempt to motivate employees and to give them a sense of priorities. A mission statement should be a short and concise statement of goals and priorities. In turn, goals are specific objectives that relate to specific time periods and are stated in terms of facts.
The primary goal of any business is to increase stakeholder value. The most important stakeholders are shareholders who own the business, employees who work for the business, and clients or customers who purchase products or services from the business. The mission should answer four questions: 1. What do we do? What is the purpose of the organization? How do we do it? What's unique about the organization? For whom do we do it?
Who are our customers and stakeholders? What are our values and beliefs? Customers make purchase decisions for many reasons, including economical, logistical, and emotional factors.
This question captures the more technical elements of the business. Our answer should encompass the physical product or service, how it is sold and delivered to customers, and how it fits with the need that the customer fulfills with its purchase.
The answer to this question is also vital as it will help us to focus our efforts. Anybody who uses our products or services is our customer. It could be a person or system next in the production line who takes what we build or provides a service. In a broader sense, it could include stakeholders for whom we ultimately do it.
Values and beliefs guide our plans, decisions, and actions. Values become real when we demonstrate them in the way we act and the way we insist that others behave. In forward-looking and energized organizations, values are the real boss. They drive and keep the workforce moving in the right direction. They help companies focus their strategy by defining some boundaries within which to operate. They define the dimensions along which an organization's performance is measured and judged.
They suggest standards for individual ethical behavior. In his book, First Things First, Steven Covey points out that mission statements are often not taken seriously in organizations because they are developed by top executives, with no buy-in at the lower levels.
But it's a pretty safe assumption that there probably is buy-in when we develop our own mission statements. First Things First is actually about time management, but Covey and his co-authors use the personal mission statement as an important principle.
The idea is that if we live by a statement of what's really important to us, we can make better time-management decisions. The authors ask, "Why worry about saving minutes when we might be wasting years? As one way to develop a mission statement, Covey talks about visualizing your 80th birthday or 50th wedding anniversary and imagining what all our friends and family would say about you.
A somewhat more morbid, but effective approach is writing your own obituary. Can we visualize what it would be like if there were no asset failures or if production met their schedule without any overtime for one month, even three months, or if there was not a single midnight call for three months and we were able to sleep without worrying?
Developing a Mission Statement 1. The mission statement should describe the overall purpose of the organization. If the organization elects to develop a vision statement before developing the mission statement, ask "Why does the image, the vision exist — what is its purpose?
When wording the mission statement, consider the organization's products, services, markets, values, and concern for public image, and maybe priorities of activities for survival. Ensure that wording of the mission is such that management and employees can infer some order of priorities in how products and services are delivered.
We strive to make our customers feel nurtured, inspired, and uplifted by the excellence of our service and the caring concern of our service providers. With this in mind, vision and mission should be revisited periodically to determine whether modifications are desirable. Corporate Strategy Strategy is a very broad term which commonly describes any thinking that looks at the bigger picture. Successful organizations are those that focus their efforts strategically.
To meet and exceed customer satisfaction, the business team needs to follow an overall organizational strategy. A successful strategy adds value for the targeted customers over the long run by consistently meeting their needs better than the competition does. Strategy is the way in which an organization orients itself towards the market in which it operates and towards the other companies in the marketplace against which it competes.
It is a plan based on the mission an organization formulates to gain a sustainable advantage over the competition. A goal is a long-range aim for a specific period. It must be specific and realistic.
Long-range goals set through strategic planning are translated into activities that will ensure reaching the goal through operational planning. Can we define reliability culture?
What does it mean if someone says that organization XYZ has a reliability culture? Is there a metric to measure it? The problem is that culture — any kind of culture — is a "touchy-feely" concept that is difficult to define and specifically measure. We can see the impact of a reliability culture in the final outcome or services provided by the organization. Reliability improves the bottom line of an organization because it can meet the customer's needs on time and cost effectively.
In a reliability culture, prevention of failures becomes an emphasis at every level of organization. The entire work force is focused on asset reliability. Most of the work is planned and scheduled. If an asset fails, it gets fixed quickly, the root cause is determined, and action is taken to prevent future failures.
The work force is trained and taught to practice reliability-based concepts and best practices on a continuing basis. An Operations workaround was used to divert the process temporarily. He called an electrician to help. He asked his supervisor to find a replacement motor. Operations demanded the repair immediately, so the supervisor called the Plant Engineer to help locate a spare motor.
Supervisor sent another crew to remove this motor while the first crew removed the failed motor. The valve was released to operation. Click here to Expand all.