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The second extreme views society and social life in purely human or social action terms; that is as no more than the creation of its members, the product of their construction of meaning, and of the action and relationships through which they attempt to impose that meaning on their historical situation Dawe, The third category represents a middle path group of theorists such as Marx, Simmel and Dahrendorf, who although adopted a structural approach to the study of social life, nonetheless, rejected the methodological persuasions of the consensus theorists.
We then went on to define what a perspective is and the assumptions that are associated with choice of any given perspective as a theoretical framework for analysing and interpreting social life.
Attempt has also been made in this section to illustrate the relevance of sociological perspectives to the study of education. The question, as we have seen, is not whether the perspectives are relevant and applicable to the study of education, but how. The conclusion is clear: Sociological perspectives are relevant and applicable to the study of education, but the assumptions which guide our choice will vitally affect the outcomes of our application of them.
What is a perspective? Which of the three categories of sociological perspectives described in this section, in your view can best explain the existing struggle by women for equality and empowerment in our society? Jot down the kind of questions you would be raising in trying to answer this question in the space provided below. That is, as made up of a set of interconnected parts which together form a whole. The early sociologists viewed society as an organism such as the human body, which is made up of several important parts that work harmoniously together towards the survival and maintenance of the organism.
Hence, an understanding of any part of the society would require an analysis of that part s relationship to other parts and most importantly, its contribution to the maintenance of society. Within such understanding, social institutions such as the family, religion, polity, education and the economy are regarded as indispensable parts of the social system rather than as isolated units. Functional Prerequisites These basic needs or necessary conditions of existence are generally referred to in sociological literature as the functional prerequisites of society.
Various approaches have been used to identify what these functional prerequisites of society are that cut across all societies. Davis and Moore , for example, argued that all societies have some form or other of social stratification, while Mardock claimed that the family is found in every society. From these conclusions it is assumed that existing institutional arrangements such as social stratification and the family meet needs that are common to all societies.
The functional prerequisites that are associated with the universal presence of these two aspects of our existence are i the need to device a mechanism for ensuring that social positions are adequately and appropriately filled by motivated persons; and ii the need to device a mechanism for the reproduction and socialisation of new members of society for its renewal and continuity Haralambos and Holborn, A second type of approach to the identification of functional prerequisites revolves around an analysis of factors that threaten the continued existence of society such as apathy, assimilation, extinction of members or what Horbbes described as war of all against all.
Levy argued in this regard, that for a society to survive, it must device means of preventing these events from occurring such as a system of social reproduction, role differentiation and role assignment, as well as, a system of goals and rewards to motivate members of society to want to perform their assigned tasks and responsibilities.
These means of securing the continued existence of society themselves constitute some of the basic requirements that need to be met. A third type of approach is also utilised for the identification of these prerequisites. Here the issue of deduction from an abstract model of the social system becomes more relevant and the functional prerequisites are more largely inferred than identified.
For example, once it is assumed that society is a system, and then it follows that the basic requirements for its survival would include, among other things, a minimum level of integration between its constituent parts as well as, some degree of mutual compatibility of the parts Haralambos and Holborn, In such an approach, religion is perceived to be the vital part of society, which meets the functional needs of social integration and cohesion through the inculcation of the social norms and values of society among its members.
That is, the significant role played by a given part of the social system. Hence, the function of the family can be said to be that of ensuring the continued existence of society through reproductive renewal and socialisation of new members, while that of religion is to integrate the social system through the inculcation of common values. To the extent that these social institutions perform their roles adequately, they remain functional. However, any detraction from their expected roles of maintaining the society in a cohesive and harmonious state would render them dysfunctional.
Presuppositions and Assumptions Talcott Parsons cites seven assumptions that govern structural functionalism: i. Systems have the property of order and interdependence of parts; ii. Systems tend towards self-maintaining order, or equilibrium; The system may be static or involved in an ordered process of change; The nature of one part of the system has an impact on the form that the other parts can take; v.
Systems maintain boundaries with their environments; vi. Value Consensus Functionalist analysis has mainly concerned itself with the central question of how social system is maintained. This focus has narrowed down the functionalist s search for an answer to value consensus a collective conscience consisting of common values, norms, beliefs and sentiments without which social solidarity and cohesion would be impossible.
Value consensus thus forms the fundamental integrating principle that binds the various parts of society together. If members share and remain committed to the same norms and values, social order will be maintained. Differences of interests are regarded as of minor and secondary importance compared to those that all groups share in common.
Functionalism and the Study of Education At this stage it will be useful to relate the functionalist analysis to the study of education. In his work Meighan gives us a hint of what functionalist analysis of education might look like and a fuller expression of the implications of viewing education by examining the relationship between the structures of society. Basic to the functionalist approach is a concern.
The system of education is seen as a means of perpetuating and reinforcing the much-desired societal homogeneity by inculcating in the child, from the beginning, the essential similarities that collective life demands Durkheim, Thus, the object of education is to legitimise rather than challenge the status quo of the existing social arrangements in a given society.
Meighan goes on to illustrate the consequence of viewing education from a functionalist perspective. First, any question about the organization and process of education will have to be viewed in terms of education s role in providing for the adequate socialisation of the individual. Second, if education is to succeed in fulfilling its transmission and socialisation functions, then its nature and purpose must be manipulated by society.
The implications of these two views are many. First, education must be viewed as having a conservative and integrative function that of transmitting the cultural heritage of older generation to younger generation and maintaining the social order. The main function of education in this regard would be to work towards solidarity and integration rather than differentiation or managed pluralism. In this sense, the education system becomes an important part of the process of achieving unity, cohesion and consensus in society.
Second, Meighan speaks of the way the functionalist view would influence interpretations of three key areas of schooling, namely, the curriculum, the roles of teachers and pupils and interpersonal relations. In all three areas, the functionalist would find a common pattern of maintaining social order: The task of designing the curriculum involves selecting only those contents that can demonstrably be shown to be part of the common collective culture.
Similarly, this same dominance of social needs over those of the individual prevails in the expected role of the teachers who must ensure the inculcation of group values, allegiance and sense of responsibility in their pupils. The pupils on their part, are seen as passive recipients of the rules of society from their teachers. They must be passive and restrained because they lack knowledge and skills and are sometimes motivated by selfish desires which need to be controlled.
In this definition of roles three distinct elements characterising interpersonal relations in the school are distinguished: i by virtue of their knowledge, experience and authority, teachers enjoy superior position over their pupils, ii teacher-pupil relations are structured in such a way as to mediate conflict or disharmony in the social order and iii within this arrangement, neither the teacher s authority nor the pupil s passivity is to be defined by personal need or interest, rather, both are to be governed by what is called the collective culture on which the entire functionalist perspective rests.
To this point it will be seen that application of the functionalist model to education or indeed any social institution, even at the level of simple analysis, requires a measure of understanding of the fit between the parts of the social system and their functional contribution to the smooth running of the whole. Functionalist analysis aims to uncover the deep structures operating in the consciousness of the whole by focusing on what can be regarded as the cardinal functions of its various parts on which the entire social structure rests.
And because the functionalists view society as a whole, any change in a part which affects the other parts to which it is interrelated. As a recapitulation of the points covered in this unit, answer the following questions in the spaces provided: 1. What benefits may be derived from the application of the functionalists macrotheory to the study of social order? What are the main disadvantages of relying on a consensus model for interpreting social reality?
Durkheim, Emile Education and Sociology. New York: Free Press. Hobbes, T. London: Dent Levy, M. Princeton, N. Murdock, G.
New York: Macmillan. Parsons, T. This perspective emphasises rather the role of the individual and how he interpretes reality was an entity not really governed by the group. This difference in emphasis it will be shown has brought as well a new methodology, quite different from that adopted by functionalists.
A key difference in their methodologies will of course be highlighted. Thus, whereas functionalism claims objectivity in its methods whereby issues are more or less static and predetermined in ways essential to the individual the action perspective, it will be shown stresses the individual s subject interpretation of reality as being the key.
The great implication of this perspective and its accompanying methodology are then applied to the institution of education in this unit. We shall also look at yet another sociological perspective which developed essentially as a reaction against functionalism. We remember that functionalism views society as constituted of parts which perform specific functions for the survival of the whole. Conflict perspective, the third in our consideration of sociological perspectives, it will be shown rejects the ideas of consensus in that it asserts that what characterizes society is perpetual conflict between individuals.
The central ideas in this perspective are competition, and exploitation. Today sociologists and educational researchers tend to use the two terms interchangeably. Some Classical Theoretical Contributions to Educational Sociology Virtually all social thinkers, since the time of Plato and Aristotle, have considered the education of the young as part of their theories of society.
However, the discipline of sociology itself did not emerge until the early nineteenth century with the writings of August Comte — Many of these early sociologists included education in their studies of society.
The formal sociological study of education did not emerge until Emile Durkheim — began to teach, and write about, education and educational institutions to students at the Sorbonne where he was made Professor of Pedagogy and Sociology in Durkheim quite rightly can be called the father of educational sociology. This notion of the ideal person varies from society to society, and even in the same society over time. But, according to Durkheim, the education system adjusts to meet this need.
Because of the importance of education for the survival of society, Durkheim regarded all education as moral education. He saw modern morality as resting on reason rather than religion, and he constructed a theory of educational practice that included what he considered the three basic elements of morality, namely discipline, attachment to social groups, and individual autonomy.
The importance of the social aspects of education did not escape other early sociologists. Some Modern Theoretical Contributions to Educational Sociology In the s educational sociology began to move into the mainstream of sociological debate in both theory and research methodology.
At that time the sociological study of education was criticized as being too conservative and constrained by the priorities and preoccupations of educators rather than those of sociologists. At the same time, sociologists were criticized as being too preoccupied with analyses of classroom interaction on the one hand and the relationship between education and status attainment on the other.
In the late s and early s the microlevel study of educational processes was developing in the United Kingdom. During this period Bernstein conducted research on language codes and learning, and pointed to the hitherto ignored symbols and meanings in the classroom situation as a possible locus of inequality in educational processes. A third new direction in educational sociology emerged in the United States. The use of causal path models has dominated aspects of educational research from the s to the present day in many countries.
A fourth and more recent development in educational sociology is that of critical theory, particularly with respect to the study of education as a form of oppression by dominant groups, or education as means of liberation from oppression.
Critical theory emerged out of the Frankfurt School in Germany in During the ensuing years, including a period of dispersion during the Second World War, members of the Frankfurt School developed a range of theoretical approaches which were a reaction to the scientism of positivist sociology, and an attempt to develop a general theoretical approach which combined theory and practice.
Although the focal points and precise details of the writers vary, the general perspective and its implications for education are coherent and relevant. Critical theory is based on the assumption that the power of capitalism has come to dominate all aspects of social life.Search this site. You can click sociology of education books pdf free download download fee below!!! You just downloading and save it on bhojpuri video songs free download khesari lal hd device that sociology of education books pdf free download have. But previously to first select which format according to the device you have, so that the Sociology of Education: A Critical Sociology of education books pdf free download PDF Online book you can read directly from your device. Or if your device not yet supports formats available, you can read a Sociology of Education: A Critical Reader PDF Kindle book directly from this website through the device you have. Examines the various topics in sociology and education while exposing students to examples of sociological research on schools. This title intends to stimulate student thinking about the important roles that schools play in contemporary society and their ability to solve fundamental social, economic and political problems. In this website the Sociology of Education: A Critical Reader PDF Download book we provide free for you all. You just downloading and save it on the device that. 1 SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION Unit Structure Objectives Introduction Meaning of Sociology of Education Scope of Sociology of Education Books. Demanet J and Van Houtte M () Social-ethnic. school composition and school misconduct: Does. sense of futility. ISBN ; Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices; Immediate eBook download after. extensively from work in philosophy, history and sociology of education. I was a child of the British welfare state, of the National Health Service, of free milk. SHARE; HTML; DOWNLOAD The types and use of each type of perspective in solving educational problems will also be discussed. SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION Sociology primarily concerns itself with B Horn Curtis W Johnson Mc Graw Hill, Introduction This book is about how to reform the. This textbook gives a sociological analysis of education by incorporating a diverse set of theoretical approaches. pdf Download The sociology. February 4, spacesdoneright.com Downloaded from However, while sociologists of education have enrolled in free and reduced-price lunch programs books. But our observations of social network transactions provide evidence that teachers also spacesdoneright.com_/articles/NRTA/Harvard_spacesdoneright.com February 4, spacesdoneright.com Downloaded from However, while sociologists of education have enrolled in free and reduced-price lunch programs books. But our observations of social network transactions provide evidence that teachers also spacesdoneright.com_/articles/NRTA/Harvard_spacesdoneright.com Difference between Educational Sociology and Sociology of Education Dhanlakshmi scheme: Conditional money transfer scheme for Girl Child following 3 Free text books and writing materials should be supplied at the primary stage. A third new direction in educational sociology emerged in the United States. This book will be of great interest for academics and researchers in the fields of education and curriculum studies. Examples of the former in the sociology of education are structuralist neo-Marxists, who explain social reproduction in schools in terms of the contradictions of the capitalist economic system. Although very much a product of its time rather than an instructive text for teachers in the 21st century, this work will be of interest to those studying the evolution of the study o. The contributors argue that the purpose of education is to provide all students with access to powerful knowledge so that they acquire the means to move beyond their experiences and enhance their lives. Author : Michael F. Today sociologists and educational researchers tend to use the two terms interchangeably. This was especially true of Emile Durkheim, and to a lesser extent Max Weber, Karl Marx, and others who in one way or another included education in their analyses of society. Sociology, Epistemology of. The purpose of critical theory is not simply to explain and analyze, but also to emancipate and transform society in the process the unity of theory and practice. The Curriculum of the Future Michael F.